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Japan

// Information about Japan before, during and after the war.

The Treaty of Versailles had given to Japan, by its action in favor of Allied territories in Asia, but its constant increase in population led the Japanese to a broad expansion in Asia.Conquered Manchuria in 1931 and then began the conquest of China. 

Japan's economy was at full capacity since 1931. However, the industrial production could not compete with the industry of the West. The Japanese high command believed that the Second World War would be short, being converted to military production in the production of consumer goods. Unlike the Western powers, Japan waited until 1944 before mobilizing the population for war. The lack of a war economy meant that Japan stayed virtually no resources to support the civilian population and its army. 

Moreover, the war with China dragged on, affecting millions of Japanese military. The economy began to show signs of slowing, with all the workmanship of Japan committed to military production. The prime minister Prince Konoe Fumimaro tried to negotiate diplomatic solutions to the West in order to achieve the necessary strategic goods to Japan 

When the United States froze the assets of Japanese and suspended commercial relations with Japan, the Japanese navy had only three years of support. If consumption was reduced from civilians, the Navy would have a little more oil. This meant they had initiated the war effort and sacrifice by the Japanese civilian population. The army was called to the Second World War. Konoe resigned the post of prime minister and was replaced by a military government headed by Hideki Tojo. 


  At this point, the advertisement showed the Japanese people unified, practicing a war effort and supporting their emperor. In addition, the Japanese were quite convinced of victory in war. However, John Dower, in his book Japan in War and Peace, argues that Japan had a significant minority that was very much against the war. The Japanese Communist Party was banned and its members were imprisoned, once tried to spread ideas against the war. 

In 1944, the Japanese government suffered a major defeat with the taking of Saipan by the Americans. The cabinet headed by the imperial army of General Kuniaki Koiso government was replaced by Tojo. This office still had the idea of ??the Japanese victory of the war, trying to get the population to increase the reserves of war material and food.Secretly, the emperor was working to end the war with the Navy and civilian leaders who had the same opinion. These had to be careful, since the military arrived extremists to kill people if they showed against the war in 30 years, it is not inconceivable that they assassinate the emperor if he worked to achieve peace 

The military government thought that the West could not sustain public support for war. Japan's strategy was to cause as many casualties as possible, hoping for the collapse of public support. The fact that the Japanese have not thought that the public would join after the attack on Pearl Harbor, was the main factor for these have underestimated the strength of the Allied countries. Except in 1944, when the support of Western public opinion on the war, the war was seen as necessary. The disapproval of the war in allied nations was socially unacceptable and the feeling of the population never dropped below 80%. The Japanese strategy failed completely from the first moment of the attack on Pearl Harbor. 

With the surrender of Nazi Germany, the Japanese proclaimed on 7 May 1945, they would fight alone. The Allies sent an ultimatum for unconditional surrender of Japan during the Potsdam Conference of July 26, 1945. A week later, the atomic bomb was successfully tested in New Mexico and released in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The Soviets entered the war with Japan on August 8. The August 9, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. 

With this, on August 14, 1945 Emperor Hirohito of Japan signed the surrender, ending World War II.



The english version of this article will be available soon. In the meanwhile, the text above was the result of a Google translation from portuguese version to english.



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