The Iron Man
In fact, Stalin is very nice, said James Byrnes, a former U.S. secretary of state, who had known him in Yalta. On his first encounter with him, Anthony Eden wrote in Memoirs. Facing the Dictators: "Stalin impressed me from the first moment, and my opinion about his ability has not changed. Conveyed his personality effortlessly and exaggeration. Naturally had good manners, perhaps a Georgian heritage. Even though I knew it was a man without mercy, I respected the quality of intelligence, even felt a sympathy that was never able to fully analyze. "
The cunning of the Asian
Biographers of Stalin spent almost all the perplexity of feeling sympathy for him and can not explain it, except perhaps his most bitter enemy, Leon Trotsky. This, passionate in his biography of Stalin, he quotes the old revolutionary Leonidas Krasin as the first Asian to call Stalin, referring to this link integrity, wit, cunning and cruelty that was considered characteristic of men of Asian state. These expressions, cunning and cruelty, especially cruelty, is what was the most defining personality of Stalin, which in Russian can be interpreted as a man of iron. Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was born in the city of Gori (Georgia, Transcaucasia), the December 21, 1879. The son of a shoemaker who drank too much and beat him up, and a most loving mother who adored him and was a laundress. Were firmness and love that it took Soso (diminutive of Joseph in Georgian) poverty and mediocrity, making him the first to enter a theological school of Gori, and after the seminar in the capital Tbilisi. At this point, the biography of Joseph begins to wrap up. To his friends and subordinates later, Joseph was always first class, the most sympathetic, the more enterprising. Sometimes flattery, undeniable result of fear, dishonesty by ditirâmbicas.In return, his political opponents deny him the bread and salt. Note the fear and hatred. It is impossible therefore to make a judgment serene school Soso.
From the revolutionary seminarian
But since there is a clear objective: never got to graduate from the Theological Faculty of Tbilisi, as well frustando his mother's dream of becoming a priest of the Georgian Orthodox Church. It seems certain, also, who was expelled from school for being rebellious. Anyway, came early in the political struggle for thirteen years, supported by a voracious reading of revolutionary literature. Although the seminary became a Marxist. In 1902 lodged in jail, arrested for the first time. Throughout his revolutionary life was arrested numerous times. In 1904 he was deported to Siberia but managed to run away and return to Tbilisi. That year separated the Bolsheviks and mencheques. Stalin became a Bolshevik. He had his first meeting with Lenin in Tampere (Finland) in 1905 and in 1906-1907 participated in the congress party in Stockholm and London. Causes impression Lenin at the beginning, which made ??him a member of the Central Committee and first director of Pravda, who started out on May 5, 1912. The following year, adopted the pseudonym of struggle, Stalin.
His career in the shadow of Lenin
It can be said that he had begun his slow ascent to the summit of power. During the revolution of 1917, Stalin had no leading role. In the polemic between Lenin, the party of revolutionary action insurreccionista, and Zinoviev and Kamenev, insurreccionismo opponents, Stalin decided by Lenin and came to be part of a Bolshevik center of action, who joined the Revolutionary Committee headed by Trotsky, the creator of Red Army. The Bolshevik victory that earned Stalin being appointed commissioner of nationalities, who was put in five years. Stalin's conduct appears to be confused during the civil war that followed the Bolshevik revolution, although Trotsky himself acknowledged to have been a brave soldier. But in April 1922 a decisive step in his career, since the Eleventh Congress, the last chaired by Lenin, Stalin was named general secretary of the party. It was not Stalin but Lenin, who, contrary to the principles of socialist democracy, did Bolshevik one-party totalitarian signal, without any freedom of expression and without the working class party pluralism. This unit was inherited and not created by Stalin in time to join in the struggle to succeed Lenin when he died in January 1924. Despite being essentially a politician, Stalin wrote enough to fill 13 volumes of his speeches, information, letters, etc.. Even in a theoretical way, approached Leninism, which he defined as the union of momentum with the Russian American activism. Stalin defended his bid to succeed Lenin, despite being disowned by Lenin himself. The initial confidence that had led him to appoint him secretary-general of the party in 1922 had disappeared. So he advised in his will that Stalin was replaced in the Secretary-General because, according to his words, was a rough and prone to abuse their power. I knew him well. After all, the strategy to succeed Lenin was a masterpiece and political conspiracy. With Lenin still alive in 1923, Stalin formed with Zinoviev and Kamenev, two other candidates, a tiunvirato to unseat the heir in pectore, Leon Trotsky. Shortly after Lenin died, Stalin played that internationalism in favor of socialism in one country, and in 1925 rejected Trotsky from the succession.
The practice of power
In the XIV Conference of the Party Stalin appeared beside the right of the party, Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky, while their former triumvirs, Zinoviev and Kamenev joined Trotsky.In 1928-1929 comes the third act: Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky and his supporters were expelled from the party. And the final act: Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky have the same luck.Well rid of all encumbrances, Trotsky expelled from Russia in 1929 and is only on top of power. Nobody makes you shadow. That same year, undertook a gigantic undertaking, against all advice: the industrialization of Russia. It proposed a decade to correct the fifty or more years of delay that led towards the industrialized countries. Of course, the sacrifices and efforts were immense. Only in 1930, twenty-five million peasants from their lands were transferred to the industrial centers. In a few years passed from the wooden plow to highly mechanized farms. The peasants opposed a strong resistance, but were defeated. Millions of them ended up in labor camps. Simultaneously, Stalin carried out the physical elimination of all possible opponents and aspiring to succeed him. It was grim chapter of the great purges in which the best minds and the best career disappeared with the justice of the famous tax Vichinsky. Every great revolutionary generation was first brought to the scaffold, after confessing the greatest inequities invented by Stalin.
The invasion of his former ally
But thanks to the massive industrialization and the discipline imposed by terror, when the Second World War broke out, the USSR could stand the terrible siege of the Wehrmacht.Stalin behaved with true greatness. When Moscow seemed about to fall, he handled himself in the Kremlin, demanding their marshals all they could give him. Their example inspired the Russian people the greatest heroism. It is true that if Hitler had not attacked in June 1941, Stalin may have found a positive alliance with the Third Reich in 1939, but had to rely on the democracies and taking advantage of them in the end, the loss by charging more monstrous twenty million dead. Expanded to where they left for the West, stopping at the Elbe, and in Central Europe has created a set of satellite countries to protect their empire.
He died on March 5, 1953 for the same reason that Roosevelt: a cerebral hemorrhage. He was married twice, the first and second with Catalina Scanitzé with Nadejna Allilouva. The two eventually bore you.
The english version of this article will be available soon. In the meanwhile, the text above was the result of a Google translation from portuguese version to english.