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Joseph Stalin - Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili


// Biografia completa do Joseph Stalin.

His career in the shadow of Lenin

It can be said that he had begun his slow ascent to the summit of power. During the revolution of 1917, Stalin had no leading role. In the polemic between Lenin, the party of revolutionary action insurreccionista, and Zinoviev and Kamenev, insurreccionismo opponents, Stalin decided by Lenin and came to be part of a Bolshevik center of action, who joined the Revolutionary Committee headed by Trotsky, the creator of Red Army. The Bolshevik victory that earned Stalin being appointed commissioner of nationalities, who was put in five years. Stalin's conduct appears to be confused during the civil war that followed the Bolshevik revolution, although Trotsky himself acknowledged to have been a brave soldier. But in April 1922 a decisive step in his career, since the Eleventh Congress, the last chaired by Lenin, Stalin was named general secretary of the party. It was not Stalin but Lenin, who, contrary to the principles of socialist democracy, did Bolshevik one-party totalitarian signal, without any freedom of expression and without the working class party pluralism. This unit was inherited and not created by Stalin in time to join in the struggle to succeed Lenin when he died in January 1924. Despite being essentially a politician, Stalin wrote enough to fill 13 volumes of his speeches, information, letters, etc.. Even in a theoretical way, approached Leninism, which he defined as the union of momentum with the Russian American activism. Stalin defended his bid to succeed Lenin, despite being disowned by Lenin himself. The initial confidence that had led him to appoint him secretary-general of the party in 1922 had disappeared. So he advised in his will that Stalin was replaced in the Secretary-General because, according to his words, was a rough and prone to abuse their power. I knew him well. After all, the strategy to succeed Lenin was a masterpiece and political conspiracy. With Lenin still alive in 1923, Stalin formed with Zinoviev and Kamenev, two other candidates, a tiunvirato to unseat the heir in pectore, Leon Trotsky. Shortly after Lenin died, Stalin played that internationalism in favor of socialism in one country, and in 1925 rejected Trotsky from the succession.

The practice of power


In the XIV Conference of the Party Stalin appeared beside the right of the party, Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky, while their former triumvirs, Zinoviev and Kamenev joined Trotsky.In 1928-1929 comes the third act: Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky and his supporters were expelled from the party. And the final act: Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky have the same luck.Well rid of all encumbrances, Trotsky expelled from Russia in 1929 and is only on top of power. Nobody makes you shadow. That same year, undertook a gigantic undertaking, against all advice: the industrialization of Russia. It proposed a decade to correct the fifty or more years of delay that led towards the industrialized countries. Of course, the sacrifices and efforts were immense. Only in 1930, twenty-five million peasants from their lands were transferred to the industrial centers. In a few years passed from the wooden plow to highly mechanized farms. The peasants opposed a strong resistance, but were defeated. Millions of them ended up in labor camps. Simultaneously, Stalin carried out the physical elimination of all possible opponents and aspiring to succeed him. It was grim chapter of the great purges in which the best minds and the best career disappeared with the justice of the famous tax Vichinsky. Every great revolutionary generation was first brought to the scaffold, after confessing the greatest inequities invented by Stalin.

The invasion of his former ally

But thanks to the massive industrialization and the discipline imposed by terror, when the Second World War broke out, the USSR could stand the terrible siege of the Wehrmacht.Stalin behaved with true greatness. When Moscow seemed about to fall, he handled himself in the Kremlin, demanding their marshals all they could give him. Their example inspired the Russian people the greatest heroism. It is true that if Hitler had not attacked in June 1941, Stalin may have found a positive alliance with the Third Reich in 1939, but had to rely on the democracies and taking advantage of them in the end, the loss by charging more monstrous twenty million dead. Expanded to where they left for the West, stopping at the Elbe, and in Central Europe has created a set of satellite countries to protect their empire. 

He died on March 5, 1953 for the same reason that Roosevelt: a cerebral hemorrhage. He was married twice, the first and second with Catalina Scanitzé with Nadejna Allilouva. The two eventually bore you.

The english version of this article will be available soon. In the meanwhile, the text above was the result of a Google translation from portuguese version to english.

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