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Italy

// Information about Italy before, during and after the war.

If you go back in time, can meet a milestone in the history of Italy: The Rerun Novarum encyclical of 1891, which led the Italian Catholics to feel sympathy for the unions. Given the undeniable trend of the Italian Catholic, the consequence of this encyclical was that unionism had its heyday in the society of this Mediterranean country. 

The political situation in Italy has made it to remain neutral, at the beginning of the Great War. However, pressure from nationalist and leftist sectors, forced the government to declare war. With his marriage to the Triple Entente in 1915 and the defeat of the Austrians, by the Conference of Versailles was able to recover Trentino Alto Adigio, Trieste, Istria and Zara, despite not having recovered from Fiume and Dalmatia. As a reaction to all this, Gabriele D? Annunzio and their legionaries stormed Fiume between 1919 and 1920. In these years of post-war Yugoslavia was formed, together with the division of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the victorious forces. By the Treaty of Rapallo of 1920, Dalmatia became part of Yugoslavia, with the exception of Zadar. This was declared to be free territory, despite having been annexed by Italy three years later. 

After the Great War, Benito Mussolini, who had been expelled from the PSI, for having supported the entry of Italy into the war, full of resentment and driven by the poor results of the war: Italy was economically devastated. Mussolini with the charisma that radiated featured a mixture of nationalism to pragmatism, urging the union movement collaboration between capitalists and workers on behalf of the great interests of the nation. In January 1921, Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party, which had been discussed at a meeting on March 23, 1919, in the piazza of the Holy Sepulchre in Milan 

In 1921, PSI has collapsed due to the resignation of Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci who dragged a lot of party activists to form the Communist Party (PCI), leaving the orphaned PSI its most radical sector. 


 

After the government crisis and after a demonstration in Rome (sort of coup), King Victor Emmanuel III to appoint Mussolini was forced to the head of government. After the electoral reform, was granted a majority to the Fascist Party, the Socialist leader maneuver Giacomo Matteotti denounced before being assassinated in 1924 by armed militias (theblack shirts) of the Duce Mussolini. The new constitution implemented censorship of the press and the 1929 Lateran Pact was signed with Pope Pius XI reestabelecia through which the power of the popes. Through this maneuver, the government of Mussolini won the support of Catholics. 

The international politics of Mussolini almost exclusively served to awaken the people of Italy for the conquest of new colonies. In 1936, despite it being against the League of Nations, Italy invaded Ethiopia and a year later the Italian East African Empire was formed. At the same time that resulted from the Spanish civil war to closer relations between Italy and Germany, forming the Rome-Berlin Axis and Mussolini sent several aircraft to defend the cause of Francisco Franco. In April 1939, Italian troops occupied Albania. 

During World War II, Italy declared war on Britain and France, and the defeat of the Axis lost their colonies. In 1943, the Allies defeated the troops of Adolf Hitler, the king had ordered from Italy that the Italian troops fought the Germans.



The english version of this article will be available soon. In the meanwhile, the text above was the result of a Google translation from portuguese version to english.




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