Germany

// Information about Germany before, during and after the war.



// 

After the German defeat in 1918, was constituted in this country the Democratic Republic. This government stumbled with serious difficulties, due to insurgencies and the difficult economic situation (the March, the German currency lost all its value). Poverty and hunger led to desperate situations in the working class, and in these circumstances, many Germans were attracted by the ideas of radical anti-democratic parties. Both the Communists and National Socialists promise the solution to all problems. It is the street that, increasingly, the struggle for political views takes place. The NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers') of Adolf Hitler, who promised the masses to break with the Treaty of Versailles, a nation without unemployment and an enlarged Germany wins this fight and become the largest political party represented in parliament, reaching 37% of the votes in the elections of 1932 (with the support of industrial, military and bankers). 

The January 30, 1933, the head of state, Marshal Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor of the Reich, and death of Hitler proclaimed himself Führer-Chancellor (head or guide) combining in his person all the powers. Nazism triumphant broke with the League of Nations and carried out the rearmament and the new power holders were quick to show their true intentions. The first anti-Jewish laws were adopted and it is a cruel persecution of the Jews in Germany. 

The NSDAP acts not only against Jews but against political opponents. Especially the communists and social democrats are persecuted and imprisoned in concentration camps.Certain forms of art, literature and music, are also prohibited. They burn books in public. Many writers, artists and scientists take refuge abroad. Democracy is abolished. 

In Germany, the peace and order return, and increased prosperity. The Nazis give much attention to the education of youth. There is great enthusiasm for Hitler and his party. There are some opponents, but most of them remain silent for fear of violence and arrest. The anti-Semites are accepted without major problems, encountering little resistance. In 1935,martial law is imposed in Germany. Only the Germans have called the German blood are considered citizens with full rights. Comes all sorts of measures to prevent and punish the contact between Jews and non-Jews. 

 

Hitler has two main objectives: the creation of a German People superior, pure race, and the creation of a Greater German Reich, which is necessary to conquer new territories. In optical Nazi, Jews are not only inferior but also dangerous. They imagine that the Jews have the power in the world and that its aim is to destroy the so-called Aryan race. 

In Germany, are increasing restrictions imposed on Jews in all aspects of life. All with one purpose: to isolate the Jewish population of non-Jewish. On the night of 9 to 10 December 1938, the Nazis organized a pogrom against the Jews (177 synagogues are reduced to ashes, 7,500 stores are destroyed and 236 Jews are murdered.) The Jews finally come to realize the great danger they are in, and many decide to leave Germany. But more and more countries close borders to refugees. 

The August 23, 1939, Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the USSR. The September 1, 1939, the German army invades Poland. Large areas are evacuated, so that German settlers can install it there. A large number of prominent Poles murdered. In Western Europe, little is known about the atrocities in Poland. In May 1940, war breaks out in the West: Holland, Belgium and France are also occupied by the German army. Unlike what happens with the Poles, the Nazis saw these people as brothers, and they do not inflict the same kind of atrocities. But in the first year of occupation of the Netherlands, begins registration of Jews. Jewish children are forced to attend separate schools, only to Jews. Everywhere there are signs in the cities where you can read: Forbidden to Jews. 

In all the occupied countries, one of the first measures taken by the German occupiers is the record of the Jews. The next step is their isolation. Are increasingly measures, and an increasing rate in order to isolate the non-Jewish Jews. The measures are effective: many non-Jews do not dare to deal with more Jews, and vice versa. In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, breaking thus the non-aggression pact. In late 1941, the registration is complete and the isolation of the Jews, both in Germany and most of the occupied areas. During the Wannsee Conference in Berlin on January 20, 1942, Nazi officials draw up the final details for the Final Solution to the Jewish Problem (Endelösung der Judenfrage). The intention is to kill all eleven million European Jews. Since then, plans for the deportation and extermination will be implemented. During the year 1942, begin deportations to concentration camps and extermination, most of which are located in Poland.



The english version of this article will be available soon. In the meanwhile, the text above was the result of a Google translation from portuguese version to english.