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Brazilian Expeditionary Force

// Information about Brazil and its military force (BEF) during the world war two.

The Brazilian troops were in Italy eleven months, after arriving there on September 1944 and leaving on August 1945. It was the only Latin American country to participate directly in the Second World War. Its participation in the war started due to the signature on January 28th 1942, during the Third Conference of the American Chancellors in Rio de Janeiro, of an agreement which would end its relation with the Axis.
With the sinking of thirty four Brazilians ships near the shore, the public opinion started to press the government of Getúlio Vargas, president of Brazil, culminating with the Brazil's entry into the war against the Axis. The Brazilian neutrality kept until then wasn't completely accepted by the Allies, which were seeing Vargas as a possible dictator in the Americas, because he showed many sympathy for the Italian fascism. So, without any other exit, on August 22nd 1942 the government was forced to recognize the existence of a belligerency state between Brazil and the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan).
It was now necessary to know what would be the answer of the government to the Axis aggressions. The first step was to allow the Americans to use the military bases so it could be possible to launch airplanes to Africa and Europe after being refueled in the Brazilian shore, the so called Atlantic Springboard. The Brazilians were also assigned to patrol the Atlantic seas and skies. But, even so, the people wanted more. Wanted that the government clearly respond to the attacks that in a few days killed more than a hundred of civilians which were in the merchant ships drowned by the Axis.
It was then in 1943 that Brazil decided to create the BEF (in English, Brazilian Expeditionary Force). Nevertheless, there was a big difficulty to find soldiers that would fit in the profile of the American and English combatant.
The last great war that Brazil had participated was against Paraguay in 1865, so they didn't have experienced combatants in great conflicts. During the 40's, the majority of the weapons was still from the First World War period, being a mix of German and English weapons.
The military tactic teached in the army was still the French one that was used during the 1914 war. The soldiers were spread on all territory, and their physical condition was also not very good. Many soldiers didn't have education because they came from the countryside where the basic education was a privilege for few people. To complete the dark situation, inside the country's army there was still a division between the officials that were supporters of German and the ones supporters from the Alies.
Politically speaking, in the country there was a movement called Integralism which was a disguised support group of Nazism and had a lot of force mainly in the South of Brazil, where there were German and Italian colonies.
To end this influence, the government prohibited people from speaking German in public and convoked all the German citizens to appear in the police stations to make a deposition. All this had the main objective of avoid espionage.
The national press said that was easier a snake smoke, than Brazil go to war. They were completely wrong. Even with so many problems, Brazil was able to mobilize more than 25 thousand soldiers, divided into three groups and, even if in full speed, started to train them to go to the operations theater. For instance, while an American soldier was trained in an average of 9 months before going to combat, a Brazilian soldier was trained only 3 months.
Then, on August 1943 the rules to the organization of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (BEF) started secretly to be traced, appointed to cooperate with the Allied armies. On August 9th 1943, the General Mascarenhas de Moraes, 2nd Military Region commander (São Paulo), was invited by the war minister, Eurico Gaspar Dutra, to assume the command of one of the Infantry Divisions of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force.
Next, the minister went to the United States with a letter from Vargas to the president Franklin Roosevelt, in which Getúlio manifested the will of Brazil to actively participate in the battles. The division of Mascarenhas de Moraes would be the 1st Expeditionary Infantry Division (1st EID), being its designation assigned later. By the Ministerial Law 4,744, published in the reserved bulletin of August 13th 1943, BEF was structured, constituted by the 1st Expeditionary Infantry Division (1st EID) and by the non-divisionary organs. On November 23th 1943 it's finally created the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (BEF), with three Infantry Divisions and organic elements from the Army Corps, including the Aviation and Command and Services Organs.
A division (1st Sampaio Regiment) would stay in Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Republic at that time, other (6th Regiment of Caçapava) in Caçapava, interior of São Paulo State, far away from the Paulist capital approximately 5 hours and other regiment (11st Infantry Regiment) would stay in Minas Gerais State, in the city of São João Del Rey.
On October 1943 it had already began the organization of the 1st Expeditionary Infantry Division (1st EID), under the orientation of the General Mascarenhas de Moraes, assigned to that on October 7th 1943. That great expeditionary unit and its elements followed the United States Army's standards and already consecrated by the war experience in course.
The organic troop of the Expeditionary Infantry Division (EID), American type, comprehended:
3 Infantry Regiments:
1st Infantry Regiment, the Sampaio, from Rio de Janeiro;
6th Infantry Regiment, from Caçapava;
11st Infantry Regiment, from São João Del Rey.
3 Artillery Groups 105mm;
1 Artillery Group 155mm;
1 Engineering Battalion (9th Engineering Battalion, from Aquidauana - Mato Grosso);
1 Reconnaissance Squadron;
1 Health Battalion (organized in Valença);
1 HQ Company;
1 Bailiff Company;
1 Transmissions Company;
1 Maintenance Company;
1 Police Platoon;
1 Music Band;
1 Health Detachment;
1 Burial Platoon.
In summary, the BEF had a Command, an Infantry division, a Personnel Deposit and small organizations with Justice Service and Health Service in which had been assigned to about 100 doctors and 111 nurses. In the organization of the 1st EID great part of the already existent units were reused, and other were transformed and created. 
The officers had to adapt to the changes. Brazilian chiefs like the generals Euclydes Zenóbio da Costa, Oswaldo Cordeiros de Farias and Falconiere da Cunha, were sent to the USA to learn the new war tactics.
During the training period, General Mascarenhas de Moraes, on December 6th 1943, accompanied by many officers, within them a Observers Group, left to North of Africa and Italy. In the last, visited during a long period the combat fronts and was in contact with the most notable military Allied chiefs of that Operations Theater. At the end of 1943, was decided that the destiny of the Brazilian expeditionary corp was the Mediterranean Operations Theater.
The Brazilian forces would be integrated into the 5th US Army, commanded by the General Mark Clark, and included in the 4th Army Corp personnel, commanded by the General Willis Crittenberger. This US Army Corp, besides the Brazilian division, was formed by the armored division (American), a south-african and English divisions, and also by the 10th Mountain Division (American), which fought with the Brazilians on February 1945, on the Monte Castello conquest.
The 5th US Army was part of the 10th Allied Armies Group. With the 5th US Army the famous 8th British Army commanded by Marshall Montgomery was fighting on the Mediterranean Theater. This British Army had fought against the Rommel Afrika Korps in Africa and had accomplished good results, which also had appeared in Sicily.
The Supreme Commander of the Mediterranean Theater was the Marshall Sir Alexander, from the British Army. In a constellation of brilliant generals like this, the BEF would be introduced.
The Allies main objective in Italy in that moment was to keep the German army under pressure, in order to prevent their commanders from displacing their troops to France, where a final offensive of the Allied forces was being prepared on West.
Only on December 28th 1943 it was published the General Mascarenhas de Moraes designation to command the 1st Expeditionary Infantry Division (1st EID), in confirmation to the choice made personally by the Government Chief, in August.
The soldiers were garrisoned and started to train all time they could, simultaneously with the constant visits from the officers.
The 1st EID was organized with the same organization as an US Army Infantry Division, with 14,254 soldiers (734 officers and 13,520 pracinhas [little soldiers], people's dearly designation for the Brazilian combatants that remained until today) and equiped with 66 howitzers (54 of 105mm and 12 of 155mm), 144 mortars (90 of 60mm and 54 of 80mm), 500 machine guns (87 submachine guns 4.5, 175 .30 and 237 .50), 11,741 rifles (5,231 carbines and 6,510 .30 rifles), 1,156 pistols caliber 45, 2,387 anti-car weapons (13 37mm cannons and 57 57mm, besides 585 2.36 bazooka and 1.532 grenade launchers), 72 anti-car mine detectors and masks against masks for all soldiers. Also with 1,410 motorized vehicles, including 13 tanks M8 and 5 M3 half-tracks tanks. That allowed to move the one third of all manpower of the 1st EID, which occurred during the Panaro river persecution. The 47 assault boats and bridges allowed the division to cross rivers. Their 736 telephones, 42 telegraphs, 592 radio stations and 10 Piper Cub planes, provided ample observation capacity and connection.
With this organization, the 1st EID had the opportunity to attack in a 6km front and defend one front from 5 to 10km, after the mountain adaptation which occurred on Apennines region, in Italy. The 1st EID training sessions started in Brazil with the support of 115 American rules translated and coordinated by the BEF General-Staff, which worked in Casa de Deodoro and provided great help to the BEF complex mobilization under the command of General Anor Teixeira dos Santos. Many officers competed to the training in the US Army.
Finally in the War
The first to embark were the men of the 6th Infantry Regiment, which was composed of men from states with military tradition in Brazil, such as Mato Grosso, which later split into Mato Grosso do Sul and Rio Grande do Sul, territories that during the war against Paraguay had been the scene of bloody battles between the two countries for doing the border with the same country. There were also men of São Paulo and other states in the Midwest, South and North of Brazil.
On the July 2nd, 1944 the Brazilian forces left for the theater of war, having arrived there on the 16th of that month, on board ship General Mann.
The men who landed in Italy did not know their destination and thought they would be sent to Africa, but his fate was in deed the Old Boot.
The first three regiments already mentioned were the 1st Expeditionary Infantry Division (EID) and the last two formed the Deposit of Staff, to replace the possible casualties. The five Embarkation Squadrons moved to Italy under the following conditions:
1st Embarkation Squadrons: on the July 2nd, 1944, by General Mann, under the command of General Zenóbio da Costa, having arrived in Naples on July 16th. Followed this General Mascarenhas de Moraes. 
Composition: Grade Advanced Headquarters 1st EID, the General Staff of the 1st ID of EID, the 6th Infantry Regiment; the 4th and 1st Co. Pel. of Mrt. the 11th Infantry Regiment; II / 1 ROAuR, 1st Company of the 9th BE; 1/3 of Sec Supr. Man and the 9th BE, 1st Pel. the Reconnaissance Squadron, the EXPLR Sec. Cmdo and elements of Sec. the 1st Broadcasting Co., the 1st Company of evacuation, the Pel. Treatment and Cmdo elements of Sec., All of the 1st Battalion of Health, the Maintenance Company, the Military Police Squad, a squad car, one of the Pel Sec. Serv. and elements of the Cmdo century. the 1st Quartermaster Company, and the elements attached to BEF 1st EID, the mail regulator, the Quartermaster Depot, the pay-office Still, war correspondents, Primary elements of the Hospital Service, Justice and the Bank of Brazil.
Effective: 5075 men, including official 304.
2nd Embarkation Squadrons: The September 22, 1944, by General Meigs , under the command of General Cordeiro de Farias, reaching Naples on October 6.
Composition: AD / 1st EID (Staff and Bia. Command), the 1st Infantry Regiment; I / 2 ROAuR; 9 BE (elements of the Dest. Cmdo., Co. Service and 2nd Co.); bulk of I ° Reconnaissance Squadron, 1st Cia Broadcasting (Extra Sec., a EXPLR Sec. Build and Sec.) 1st Battalion of Health (elements of the Dest. Cmdo., 1st Co. elements of Evacuation and Treatment Co. ), elements of Company Quartermaster; elements Depot Quartermaster; elements of the Services Postal and Justice; Company's Headquarters of the 1st EID; bulk of HQ 1st EID, Group 2 Supplemental Brazilian in Hospitals American; Group 3 Supplemental Brazilian American Hospitals, war correspondents and members of the Bank of Brazil. 
Effective: 5075 men, including official 368.
3rd Embarkation Squadrons: The September 22, 1944, by General Meigs, under the command of General Falconiere Olimpio da Cunha, reaching Naples on October 6.
Composition: 11 IR.; I / 1 ROAuR; I / 1 RAPC; 9 BE (Command and Co. Service, Dest. Health and 3rd Co.); Esq Liaison and Observation; 1st Battalion of Health (Dest. Cmdo ., Pel. Treatment and 3rd Co. Evac.) elements of the 1st Company Quartermaster; HQ 1st EID and Co. HQ, Depot Quartermaster, Music Band, Group 1 Supplemental Brazilian in Hospitals American, and Platoon for the burial.
Effective: 5,239 men, including 318 officers. The staff carried the 2nd and 3rd Squadrons Embarkation mounted to 10,375 men.
4th Embarkation Squadrons: The November 23, 1944, by General Meigs, under the command of Colonel Mario Travassos, reaching Naples on December 7. He led the 1st Squadron of the Deposit of Staff BEF; Effective: 4,691 men, including 285 officers.
5th Embarkation Squadrons: The February 8, 1945, by General Meigs, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Iba Jobim Meireles, having arrived in Naples on 22 of the same month. He led the 2nd Squadron of the Deposit of Staff BEF.
Effective: 5082 men, including official 247.
With the exception of 111 soldiers, including 67 nurses, who traveled by air (Rio-Natal-Dakar-Naples) all the soldiers went to Italy via Ocean.
When they arrived in Italy, the Brazilians had to be re-equipped because the uniforms that the government offered was of poor quality and similar to the German uniform. Legend has it that when men came were booed by the Neapolitans, who threw stones and spat on by men, thinking that if they were German prisoners, even though their ranks blacks and mestizos. The misunderstanding was only broken when the flag was brought forward and the band started playing the national anthem.
On July 26th, 1944, authorized the relocation of the 1st Embarkation Squadron for the region of Tarquinia. On the night of August 5th, 1944 1st Embarkation Squadron was already concentrated in Tarquinia, where, after a fortnight, received arms and equipment of all kinds. That same day, were subordinate to the U.S. Fifth Army.
From 18th to 20th of August the 1st Embarkation Squadron moved from Tarquinia to Vada, which were 25 kilometers from the front of the Arno. Once installed, had to camouflage a huge vineyard. The final instruction period was three weeks.
The 1st Squadron was then sent to the valley of the Serchio, while newcomers from Brazil 2nd and 3rd Embarkation Squadrons, estimated in 10,000 men, reached the training area located in the Quinta Real in San Rossore. The 2nd and 3rd Embarkation Squadrons took thirty-five days to get all the supplies of war and the work of distribution to the Brazilian Services, who were only been completed on November 22, 1944.
The 4th and 5th Embarkation Squadrons, which formed the deposit Personnel of the BEF, left Brazil almost without instruction, reaching Italy respectively on December 7th, 1944 and February 22nd, 1945, one day after the victory of Monte Castello.
The advanced headquarters was installed in Porretta Terme.
To test the newcomers, Brazilians that had not yet gone through the baptism of fire, were sent to an area lying between the plains that border the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the picturesque Serchio valley, place considered calm.
On the night of September 15th, 1944 Brazilian troops replaced U.S. troops placed in a big front, on the left of the 1st Armored Division.
On September 18th, Brazilians conquered Camaiore and with the actions of September 19th, can frown upon the outposts of the famous Gothic Line. To reach the Monte Prano on September 26th, the Brazilian troops passed hard days. There are countless villages and towns that BEF freed, among them we can mention: Lucca, Borgo a Mozzano, Bagni de Lucca, Fornaci, Gallicano, Castelnuovo di Garfagnana.
Continuing its move to the North, along the aforementioned valley, the BEF posting occupied on the 6 of October localities of Fornaci and Coreglia Antelminelli. On October 11th Brazilians occupied Barga and more to the south, the town of Gallicano. On the morning of October 30th, despite the mud and rain, which has announced the winter, the BEF, in a first-time, hit the line, from where it would be launched to Castelnuovo, ideal spot to try to free the route 64 which gave access to Bologna, where supplies could be sent to the armies of the South of France, and for the displacement towards Austria and consequently to Berlin.
The Germans counter-attacked and repeatedly Castelnuovo changed ownership. In the assessment of commanders until the month of September, BEF made from 16th of September to 31st of October, 40 kilometers forward, captured 208 prisoners, some towns and factory accessories for airplanes, suffering 290 casualties (killed, wounded, injured and lost).
Concluded with such results the action of the General Zenóbio Costa as commander of Detachment BEF, since the arrival of most of the 1st EID was demanding his presence in the preparation of two Infantry Regiments (1st and 11th IR, who arrived the second and third levels respectively).
November has arrived, and also the winter

Encouraged by the progress of Brazil, the Americans decided to pass control of the troops in full for the Brazilian command, and once that happened, General Mascarenhas de Moraes assumed at hour zero of November 1st 1944, with the arrival of other units of the Division, the control of all your resources, including operations that were happening in the Serchio Valley. Between 3rd and 7th of November 1944, the BEF would change the battlefront and would follow the valley of the Rhine. Some American generals disagreed with that, saying that the Brazilians were still too immature for such actions. Even so, the Brazilians went. The defense of the Rhine valley, as it was called that period, was characterized by four unsuccessful attacks against Monte Castello, which formed a crucial point for the achievement of the desired road to Bologna.
The first and second attacks were carried out, respectively, on 24th and 25th November by U.S. troops, commanded by an American general and reinforced by a battalion and other elements of the Brazilian Division, having failed due to lack of coordination that existed. The third and fourth attacks were carried out by Brazilian troops, on November 29th and December 12th, respectively, occurring with the most painful failures due to the suffered casualties and the moral shock produced on the rookie combatants and without any idea on what would be found ahead.
The failure of operations was a result of inexperience of some soldiers who debuted on the front line and the lack of communication of the two commands that have not synchronized the attacks.
It was seen that to take Monte, it was mandatory to surround it by other neighboring hills in the set-Gorgolesco Belvedere-Castello-Torraccia, employing at least two divisions and supported by artillery and aviation.
But the General Winter arrived, and with it the difficulties for the Brazilians, who were used to tropical and were facing the cold until -18°C.
But pracinha was creative and figured out how to protect himself from the cold. For example, to prevent trench foot, which were the freezing of feet, the pracinha found that placing two socks and lining the snow wellies with hay and paper, could waterproof the feet. Result: all other countries copied the idea.
With a huge cold, the months of December and January passed, and the combat ground was characterized no man land due to the fact that the area where the constant clashes between German and Brazilian patrols was not part of allied area nor area German.
Another fact that drew attention in the army of Brazil, was that unlike other armies, there was no separation by race, skin color, and/or religion. All fought together as one country. Americans who had special wards for black for instance (92nd IR), were surprised that in Brazil blacks, descendants of Europeans, Arabs, Indians and all the races that made up the ethnic wealth of the country, stating that the mixture was taking the combativeness to the army.
It was with this diversity that in the morning of February 16th, 1945 a conference of senior military officers was held at Headquarters of the IV Corps, in Lucca. Among the generals Crittenberger, Mascarenhas de Moraes, George Hays and William Crane, respectively commanders of IV Army Corps, 1st EID, 10th Mountain Division and Artillery of the IV Corps, assisted by various officers of lower rank, it was decided that the Brazil would attack Monte Castello again, and this time the action could not fail since it was a matter of honor.
The action began at dawn on the 20th, with the conquest by the 10th Mountain Division of Mount Belvedere and Gorgolesco. At 5pm of February 20th, Mazzancana was conquered already bombed by aircraft of the Brazilian Air Force and by the morning of 21st, after a fierce battle that began at 6am and ended at 17:20, the Brazilian Division conquered Monte Castello.
The main action of the attack was executed by Sampaio Regiment, covered, on his right flank, by a battalion of the 11th IR and on his left side, attached to the 10th Mountain Division who attacked Monte Della Torraccia.
But things did not improve after that as on the 23rd and 24th of February other hills like La Sierra also offered strong resistance, but also fell and until March 4, a clean operation was performed on the valley of Marano.
The attack on Castelnuovo, whi from October had been changing ownership was held on March 5th, 1945, changing definitely into the hands of Brazilians.
Other missions also would had to be performed, and to the Brazilian Division fell the task of:
1) conquer Montese and exploit success by cutting the Panaro river,
2) continuously replace the western flank (left) of the 10th Mountain Division,
3) advance in direction of Zocca-Vignola.
And so it was. On the 14th, the actions culminated in the fall of Montese. Around 3pm of the 11th IR of São João Del Rey managed to penetrate the village of Montese, disorganizing and involving resistances. The American armored vehicles, followed by Brazilian infantry, reached just before the 6pm, the southern slope of Montebuffone, north of Montese. It was still left to conquer the heights of 927 and Montelo to cover the advance of the 10th Mountain Division, against the enemy sights and fires. The Brazilians have progressed to the 788. On the evening of the 15th, it was given the task to the the Brazilian Division of keeping their current positions and extend its front to the east. The position fell on the 19th.
Now it was necessary to complete the second objective which was to go towards Zocca-Monte Orsello - Viggnola, cleaning the eastern bank of the Panaro and guarding the left flank of the Fifth Army.
On the 22 the task was already accomplished, and the Germans spread across the Po valley, now looking back its frontiers and support the German armies defending Germany.
Commanders decide to pursue the enemy and cut off their advance. Cavalry provided transport for troops and on April 26th, decided to start the chase between Taro and Enza cuts. On the afternoon of April 26th the Reconnaissance Squadron clashes in Collecchio with enemy forces, whose value was superior to their possibilities, and at nightfall, a battalion of the 11th IR, in collaboration with the Squadron and a company of the 6th IR, made contact with the German troops, who defended tenaciously. By the early hours of 27th the fight increases and which lasts for a few hours.
The 148th German Infantry Division, consisting of more than 14,000 men, suddenly find themselves surrounded with no option. It was fight or die or surrender and save lives. They came from the coastal sector of La Spezia and beat route to the north of the River Po. The Germans still resisted until 28 April. Emissaries treat ordering the end of hostilities. A priest comes to be the mediator of the agreement. Hours later, on the morning of April 29th, the beginning of a spectacular episode of unconditional surrender of the German 148th DI and the remnants of the 90th Armored Division and Division Bersaglieri Italy.
At once, fell before the Brazilians, 14,779 prisoners, among whom were two generals and more than eight officers. Also seized about eighty guns, a thousand of cars, two hundred animal-drawn vehicles, four thousand horses, lots of automatic weapons, rifles and other vital equipment. The casualties on the Brazilian side were 5 killed and 50 wounded.
On the night of April 28 while waging the fight of Fornovo, advanced elements of the Brazilian Division occupied the plains surrounding the city of Piacenza, and on the next day, transposed Po to establish a bridge on the north of that river. On May 2, a battalion of the 11th IR, reinforced by other elements, occupied the important city of Turin.
That same day the Reconnaissance Squadron, reinforced by strong patrol I/11° IR, reached the city of Susa, 32 kilometers from the Italian-French border, making connection with the 27th Division of the French Army. In these nineteen days of offensive, more than nineteen thousand prisoners were made.
It was the end of German rule in Italy. Seeing this, on May 3 starts Brazilian occupation in Italy, which lasted until 28 August.
The 1st Squadron returned to Brazil, which arrived at the Rio de Janeiro on July 18th, 1945 and the 5th, last Squadron arrived at the same destination on 3rd October of that year.
The Vargas government out of fear or apprehension that the men who had fought for the BEF to freedom of the Italian people, also wanted to fight his dictatorial rule, the notice of 217-185 July 6th, 1945 established that as were coming to Rio de Janeiro the various Squadrons, returning from Italy, such units were being extinguished.
BEF left in the small and flowered Brazilian cemetery in city of Pistoia, near Florence, 454 dead. About 23 soldiers were considered as lost (including 10 buried as unknown). The dead of the BEF were brought back in 1960 for Brazil and rest in a cemetery in Rio.
From 16th September 1944, the BEF traveled, conquering the enemy, sometimes inch by inch, about 400 kilometers from Lucca to Alessandria, through the valleys of the rivers Sercchio, Reno and Panaro and the Po lowland; released almost fifty towns and cities; suffered more than 2,000 casualties, killed, wounded and missing; did considerable number of 20,583 prisoners, including two generals - General Otto Fretter Pico, commander of the 148th DI German, and General Mario Carloni, commander of what remained of the Division foiled Bersaglieri Italy. In total there were 2 Generals, 892 officers and 19,689 soldiers. The BEF also captured: 80 Guns, 5,000 cars and 4,000 horses.
From the conquest of Camaiore, in front of the river Serchio, to the surrender of the German 148th DI in Collechio-Fornovo the first EID was always able to fulfill  the tasks assigned to it by the General Willys Crittenberg Dale, commander of the 4th Army Corps in which the Brazilian troops were incorporated.
BEF Victories
Mazzarozza 18.08.1944
Camaiore 18.09.1944
Monte Prano 26.09.1944
Fornacci 06.10.1944
Galicano 07.10.1944
Barga 11.10.1944
San Quirino 30.10.1944
Monte Cavalloro 16.11.1944
Monte Castello 21.02.1945
S. Maria Villiana 04.03.1945
Castelnuovo 05.03.1945
Montese 14.04.1945
Paravento 15.04.1945
Monte Maiolo 19.04.1945
Riverla 20.04.1945
Zocca 21.04.1945
Formigine 23.04.1945
Collecchio 27.04.1945
Castelvetro 28.04.1945
Fornovo 28.04.1945
Enemy divisions who fought BEF
42nd Jaeger Division (Light)
232nd Infantry Division
94th Infantry Division
114th Jaeger Division (Light)
29 Panzer Division Granadier
334th Infantry Division
90 Panzer Division Granadier
305th Infantry Division
148th Infantry Division Corps Parachute Armored Herman Goering
Italy Division 
Monte Rosa Division
San Marco Division
Weapons, Vehicles and Equipment
The firepower of the First Expeditionary Division of BEF consisted of:
16,245 individual weapons;
505 guns;
144 mortars;
66 howitzers;
2,287 anti-tank guns;
237 guns;
736 telephones;
42 telegraphic apparatus that ensured transmissions;
10 observation planes and connection, Piper Cub, Groups Artillery.
Today's veterans who have served as BEF soldiers earn pensions ranging from R$1,500 (approximately €400) to R$3,000 (€900). Officers earn more.
Getúlio Vargas, fell some time later on his own, without any intervention of the former BEF except generals and officers who engaged in the army of Brazil and helped deploy the military dictatorship in the country, which began in 1964 and ended in 1985, causing the loss of democracy in the country and slowing the growth of the nation, the state borrowing and increasing corruption remained as a legacy to this day.
Simões, Raul Matos A. - A presença do Brasil na II guerra mundial: uma antologia/ Biblioteca do Exército/ Rio de Janeiro
Waack, William/ As duas faces da glória: a FEB vista pelos seus aliados e inimigos/ Editora: Nova Fronteira
Lima Júnior, Raul da Cruz/ Quebra-canela: a engenharia brasileira na campanha da Itália/ Editora: Biblioteca do Exército

Text from the Helton Costa work.
Check the published books (in Portuguese) from Helton and also available for download.

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