Eisenhower was born in Texas. Having graduated from Military Academy at West Point (1915), held a diverse range of positions before the Second World War. He became commander in chief of American and British forces who participated in the invasion of North Africa (November 1942), led the Allied invasion of Sicily (July 1943) and announced the surrender of Italy September 8, 1943. In December he became commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force for the invasion of Europe and was promoted to army general (December 1944). After the war he served as commander of U.S. occupation forces in Germany and then returned to the United States to occupy the post of chief of staff. He was president of Columbia University and vowel of the chiefs of staff between 1949 and 1950. He left the army in 1952 to devote himself to campaigning for the presidency, was elected and then reelected with a considerable margin of votes (1956). Despite being a popular politician, Eisenhower was in office for a period of great tension, either domestically or internationally: on the one hand, the civil rights movement was in the expansion phase, on the other, the cold war dominated international politics. Still, the United States experienced during his presidency a time of great prosperity and economic growth.
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