Born in Hyde Park, New York State, within a wealthy family, Roosevelt was educated in Europe and the universities of Harvard and Columbia, became a lawyer. In 1910 he was elected to the Senate of the State of New York. Served as Navy secretary in the administrations of President Wilson in the years 1913-21, and worked hard to increase the efficiency of the Navy during World War II. He suffered from polio since 1921, but returned to politics and was elected to the post of governor of New York in 1929. When he was elected president in 1933, Roosevelt pointed to a new spirit of hope through his skillful radio program Conversations with fireplace, and his inauguration speech: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Rounding up brains of a company of experts, immediately launched his reform program. The banks reopened, the federal credit was restored, the gold standard was abandoned and a weak dollar. During the first hundred days of his administration, has introduced important legislation to facilitate the recovery industry and agriculture. In 1935 he introduced the law of the actions of utility companies, directed against the abuses of the majority shareholders of companies and social security law, providing insurance and disability pensions and retirement. The presidential election of 1936 was entirely based on the political gains of the so called new contract (new deal). During 1935-36 Roosevelt became involved in a dispute over the formation of the Supreme Court, following the cancellation of most of the measures of the new contract, considered unconstitutional. In 1938 introduced measures to support agriculture and improve working conditions. Regarding foreign policy, Roosevelt endeavored to use its influence to reduce aggression in the Axis, and establish good neighborly relations with other countries in the Americas. Shortly after the outbreak of war, launched a major rearmament program, introduced the recruitment, and provided the supply of arms to the Allies. Despite a strong isolationist opposition, broke a precedent of long-term to run for a third term and was reelected in 1940. Announced that the U.S. become the arsenal of democracy. Roosevelt was desirous that the U.S. enter the war by the Allied side. In addition to the disgust he had for Hitler, sought to establish the U.S. as a world power, filling the void that would result from the breakdown of the British Empire. Was limited by the isolationist forces in Congress, and some argued that he had gladly received the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Public opinion was against involvement in the war. Reportedly, Roosevelt and the military chiefs not made known, deliberately, the secret reports received from various information services and who claimed to be an imminent attack by the Japanese naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The deaths at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 shocked public opinion, and the U.S. could then enter the war. From this point on, Roosevelt took on command of the war. Participated in conferences in Washington in 1942 and Casablanca in 1943, to plan the assault on the Mediterranean; conferences in Quebec, Cairo and Tehran, in 1943, and Yalta in 1945, where final preparations were made for the victory of allies. He was reelected in a fourth term in 1944, but died in 1945.
The english version of this article will be available soon. In the meanwhile, the text above was the result of a Google translation from portuguese version to english.