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Munich Pact

// Information about the Munich Pact.

The Munich Pact was an agreement made and signed by Germany, Italy, France and the United Kingdom in Munich, Germany, September 29, 1938. This pact established the acceptance by the United Kingdom and France from Adolf Hitler's demand for territory that the Czechoslovak Sudetenland (inhabited mostly by Germans) would belong to Germany. Local German leaders claimed that the Czech government discriminated against the people sudeta, and Germany supported the self-determination. In a series of negotiations that began in August 1938, ceding the territory to Germany Sudeta had already been agreed almost from the beginning by the participants of the pact. The UK and France, desperate to avoid war, accepted the demands of Adolf Hitler on condition that he not claimed any other European territory. Chamberlain hoped that the concessions made to Germany for the region Sudeta would encourage Germany to become a strong and peaceful country in Europe. The pact, signed by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in the UK, Prime Minister Edouard Daladier of France, Germany by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Italy, determined the conditions under concessions. 

The Munich Pact set October 1, 1938 as the date for the evacuation of the Czechoslovak territory. The occupation by the Germans of the four specified districts was to take place in successive stages between 1 and 7 October. The remaining territories whose population was mostly of German origin were to be observed by an international commission composed of delegates from France, Germany, UK, Italy and Czechoslovakia. The international commission was to conduct elections in other disputed territories. It was also agreed that the claims of Polish and Hungarian minorities in Czechoslovakia were not established in three months, should be held a new conference. 

In March 1939 the Germans marched into the interior of Czechoslovakia, making this a country protected by Germany, thus nullifying the Munich Pact and confirming the suspicions of the English at the lack of honesty of Adolf Hitler. As a consequence of this act, the UK announced their protection in Poland. On 23 August the Soviet Union signed the Non-Aggression Pact with Germany in order to avoid war. The September 1, Hitler invades Poland, mistakenly thinking that Britain and France would not intervene. Both countries declared war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II. 

The Policy of Appeasement by the United Kingdom and France - the concessions made to the demands of Nazi Germany aimed to avoid war - ended with the German invasion of Poland. In addition, the Munich Pact became a symbol of the dangers associated with the policies of appeasement, as well as the subsequent humiliation of the United Kingdom. 

Document the Munich Pact


 

Germany, UK, France and Italy, taking into account the agreement already reached on the transfer of territory to Germany Sudeta German, agreed to the following terms and conditions governing the transfer and measures to be taken, and by this agreement each is responsible for the steps necessary to accomplish the agreement:

  1. The evacuation will begin on October 1.
  2. The UK, France and Italy agree that the evacuation of the territory should be completed on October 10, without the existing facilities are destroyed, and the government of Czechoslovakia to be responsible for the evacuation without damage to these facilities.
  3. The conditions governing the evacuation will be made in detail by an international commission composed of representatives of Germany, UK, France, Italy and Czechoslovakia.
  4. The occupation by stages of the predominantly German territory by German troops will begin October 1. The four territories marked on the attached map will be occupied by German troops in the following order: 
    The territory of the first paragraph I and 2 October, the territory No. II 2 and 3 October, the territory III No. 3, 4 and 5 October, the territory paragraph IV 6:07 October. The rest of the predominantly German will be watched by the international commission and occupied by German troops from 10 October.
  5. The international commission referred to in paragraph 3 will determine the territories will be governed by plebiscite. These territories will be occupied by international representatives until the referendum is over. The same commission define the conditions under which the plebiscite must be exercised with regard to the basic conditions of the Saar plebiscite. The committee also set the date, not later than the end of November, in which the plebiscite will be exercised.
  6. The determination of the borders will be held by the international commission. The committee will be responsible for recommending to the four Powers, Germany, UK, France and Italy, in certain exceptional cases, minor modifications in the strictly ethnographical determination of the areas that should be transferred without plebiscite.
  7. Will there be a right of option into and out of the transferred territories, the option being exercised for six months from the date of this agreement. A German-Czechoslovak commission shall determine the details of the option, consider ways to facilitate the transfer of population and estavelecerá questions relating to such transfer.
  8. The Czechoslovak Government will within a period of four weeks from the date of this agreement, to withdraw military forces and police of any territory of the Sudeten Germans who wish to be released, and the Czechoslovakian government in the same period will release Sudeten German prisoners who are arrested for political reasons.

Munich, September 29, 1938 
Adolf Hitler 
Neville Chamberlain 
Édouard Daladier 
Benito Mussolini

 

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